First of which is portraying the Imperial German Army's look at the 'firepower' concept
You will find that the Canadian, New Zealand and Australian forces had the same name for trench raids that the German army did. When the AIF came to the Western Front in 1916 they were trained in trench raiding by the Canadians as they were the noted experts of the time. Australian forces in later years were restricted in their manpower by the failure of several referendums for conscription. The AIF forces made up for this by giving platoons greater firepower in terms of machine guns. The AIF forces were often used as shock troops in the same manner German forces were deployed.
There is a Yank myth that it took the relatively tiny AEF to tilt the scale for the allies, which is usually not well explained except that it was comprised of fresh troops.
It is also at odds with the Battle of Marne in 1918 being the offensive that determined that Germany would never reach Paris. It is also at odds with the Royal Navies blockade throttling German industry from early 1917 onwards.
The aviation industry was the high tech of the day and in late 1916 the British and French aviation industries were producing 200 hp inlines while the German aviation industry through a lack of high octane fuels and lubricants was only producing 160hp engines. At the end of the war the standard entente engine was producing upwards of 400 hp with the Italians producing horsepower of 700 hp. Germans engines of 1918 were capable of producing 185 hp.
The movement of American army troops in July of 1918 made only added to the inevitability of the wars end. Thet didnt cause it. The German war machine had lost from September 1916 onwards. Churchill has the argumen that America's entry to the war extended the war as Germany increased their military units in September 1917 to meet the expected increase of numbers and munitions of US forces. For instance the Palestinian 'Pascha' aviation force increased by 400% under the 'Amerika Program'.
I dont believe however that America's entry to the war in in late 1917 made any difference to the outcome of WWI. In my opinion the French Army and British Navy won WWI. WWI is a different anmal to WWII and often the American contribution is told in terms of the American contribution to WWII where the US contribution was the deciding contribution.
Churchill believed and wrote that the 'Amerika' program and America's entry into the war extended it, I dont agree with him. I think Germanies collapse from the blockade was inevitable and increased armament in September 1917 made little difference. As above German industry was hampered technically from September 1916 onwards.
I do not however want to denigrate the lives of any American how served or lost their lives on foreign shores in WWI. It is a greater sacrifice than I have ever been faced with.
It should be added though that by wars end the AEF had 3.5 million men in Western Europe. In comparison though the British forces mobilised nearly 7 million men. The French had way more than that, closer to 20 million IIRC.
Just how much influence and bearing did General Pershing have with French and British commands is also not objectively explained.
Bugger all, the biggest gain Pershing made was the same as the Canadians and Australians had made earlier in the war, that was not to be split up and deployed piecemeal in the British or French forces.
unlike French or British generals his civilian governmental boss (Wilson) backed him.
Monash and Chauvel were two very skilled Australian Generals that were fully backed by the Australian Government. More so than Blamey got in WWII from Menzies or Rowell on Kokoda got from Curtin. Pershing was obviously a skilled logistician and commander though.
This rift is later added to cause by some as to why there were no mutual defense arrangements for Singapore and Manila between the two navys verses Imperial Japan. (Other factors, too)
There was the ABDA command at the time of Singapores fall. This was the Australian British Dutch American naval command. All the naval assests in the South Pacific at the time fell under it and as Java was the main focus of defence by that time most of the local(remaining) naval assets were commanded by Dutch Admirals. When the USS Houston and HMAS Perth were sunk in the Java Straits during a valiant battle this is while both were part of the ABDA force.
What most people dont recognize is that 8th December Malayan time is 7th December Hawaii time. The Japanese attacked Malaya at the same time as Pearl Harbour leading to their successes through South-East Asia and the South Pacific until the USMC was able to stop them at Guadalcanal and the Australian Army at Port Moresby.
MacArthur was the cause of most rifts in the Pacific front in WWII. nOt only between the Australians and Americans but also between the New Zealanders and Americans. MacArthurs vanity didnt only extend to foreigners, is include the USN and USMC. Ask a Marine Corps bloke what they think of 'Dugout Doug', it will be same as what the Australian Army think of him. Basically that he is a wanker.
Unsurprisingly it was the USMC and the Australian Army which did the bulk of the fighting in the South Pacific. It should be noted however that until June of 1942 all the allies in the South Pacific were on the backstep. So if there was disarray it was theatre wide. It took Midway, Coral Sea, Milne Bay, Kokoda and Guadalcanal to solidify the allies position in the South Pacific.
Freedom, Liberty, Equity and an Australian Republic
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