If You Think
You're Mentally Ill
If you feel you may be sufferring from a mental illness, or could be
in danger of doing so, I urge you in the strongest terms to seek the
advice of an experienced mental health professional - a psychologist or
(Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in mental illness.
They have M.D. degrees and are licensed to prescribe medicine. Psychologists
hold graduate degrees and practice "talk therapy".)
This is important for more reasons than to simply relieve your sufferring.
As I said before, if left untreated a mental illness can cause permanent
damage. Besides the
kindling that occurs with untreated manic depression,
there is the damage that bad decisions or the inability to maintain
relationships can do to your life. If you get severely depressed, there is
the danger of suicide. It is much easier to deal with a mental illness
before you become desperately ill. Look at it this way: an office
visit is much cheaper than a hospital stay.
Accurate diagnosis is important. It is difficult to diagnose many
mental disorders, and if you're misdiagnosed you may not receive the
treatment you need.
It is common to mistake manic depression for schizophrenia
and vice versa. Other illnesses that can be confused with manic depression
include Attention Deficit Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.
There is the danger of that antidepressants may cause one to
become manic. An occurrence of even one manic episode in your lifetime is
enough for a diagnosis of manic depression. I feel the history of
every patient who receives antidepressants for the first time
should be investigated to
determine the danger that their medicine may cause mania.
Although general practitioners - regular
medical doctors - may legally prescribe antidepressants, I am strongly of the opinion
that it is unethical for them to do so except in emergencies, as they do
not have the training or experience to determine whether one might be
Do not engage in the self-deception of self-diagnosis. It is common for
people to hear about illnesses of all sorts on Oprah or Donahue (or the
Internet!) and to then
fool themselves into thinking they share the diagnosis with the talk show
guest. If you research an illness carefully
enough before you consult a doctor, you can even fool him into
agreeing with your diagnosis.
Failure to diagnose correctly can be life threatening. A number of
medical conditions cause disturbances in thought and affect, for example
stroke, brain injury as well as
cancer of the brain, thyroid or andrenal gland. When the grandmother of
Mindfullness author Ellen J. Langer complained to her doctor that a
snake living in her head was giving her headaches, he diagnosed her as
senile and refused to investigate further. It was only after her death
that an autopsy found the brain tumour that killed her.
Mental disturbance can be
caused by heavy metal poisoning - the Mad Hatter in Alice in Wonderland
was inspired by real hatmakers who were sickened by the mercury used in the
manufacture of felt hats.
Drugs of abuse can cause mental disturbances that last long after
the drug itself has worn off. Besides the damage that addiction can
do to your life and that of your loved ones, drugs, including alcohol, can cause
such things as paranoia, anxiety and depression.
It is common for
people with psychiatric illnesses to "self-medicate", but this ultimately
causes more problems than it solves. Besides the alcoholic drowning
their sorrows with drink, I have heard that alcohol suppresses
hallucinations for the schizophrenic. Many times I have been warned
by my doctors of the tempting danger that drugs hold
the manic depressive.
Neuroses can be caused by unresolved traumas early in life. For
example childhood sexual abuse and violence, or living through times
of famine and war. Having an addicted family member usually causes
the entire family to behave in dysfunctional ways that leave lasting
scars on everyone.
Perhaps you carry a terrible secret, a secret that you've never
told anyone. Carrying the memory of childhood trauma continues to
cause damage in adulthood far out of proportion to the original
injury. Perhaps it is time to find someone you can trust to share
your secret with. The injury you sufferred can never be undone, but
it is within your power to change how you live with it today.
Mental illnesses can be mistaken as physiological ones: I
have heard of a woman who was diagnosed and treated as epileptic when she
was a young
girl, then suffered for years because the medicine did not
relieve her symptoms.
It was only when she turned 16 and wanted to get a driver's license that
further investigation found she really sufferred from anxiety.
My diagnosis at Alhambra CPC included CAT scans of my head, blood
and urine tests
and neurological tests to rule out such things as tumours and poisoning.
A psychiatrist will usually do a thyroid panel before treating someone
for manic depression.
(There was another patient at Alhambra
who arrived in a catatonic stupour and slowly
awakened during our time there. It turned out that he had a physiological
condition that caused the buildup of ammonia in his blood.)
However, there is no blood test for psychiatric illness; at best blood
tests can rule out other physiological conditions. Tests such as Positron
Emission Tomography can detect such things as the excessive metabolization of
sugar in the right brain hemispheres of manic people, but PET scans are
very expensive and so only commonly performed for research purposes.
Diagnosis of a mental
disorder is made from the patient's history, observation of the patient's
current behaviour, talking with the patient,
and psychological diagnostic tests.
I had the
Rorschach Inkblot Test, the
Thematic Apperception Test, in which I explained what I thought to be
happening in some pictures, and the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in which I answered a
lengthy questionaire about my thoughts and feelings.
I also took an IQ test. Being manic I was feeling quite intelligent, so
I was appalled to find that my score was off about 20 points from the two
IQ tests that school psychologists had given me a child. The
psychologist who tested me in the hospital
reassured that my brain was not degenerating, but that
psychosis caused a temporary decrease in intelligence.
She said my intelligence would
recover when the episode passed. However she warned me that my intelligence
would fail to recover fully if I had repeated manic episodes.
If you don't have the money to pay for treatment you may still have
options depending on where you live. Even in the United States, which does
not have publicly funded health care for most illnesses, there are
government-supported mental health clinics in many communities, as well
as private non-profit clinics that charge their patients based on their
ability to pay.
Many psychologists and psychiatrists offer sliding scales, where they
charge lower income patients less money. Not everyone offers this, so you
have to call around.
Some psychiatric medications are expensive; treatment with clozapine for
schizophrenia costs thousands of dollars a year. The government might
assist in the cost of your medicine, and some drug companies offer
"compassionate drug plans" in which qualifying patients receive their
medicine free of charge directly from the drug company. In addition
the drug companies often give psychiatrists free advertising sample
packs of drugs, which the psychiatrists then give to their patients
who cannot afford to buy them.
Q: How many psychologists does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Just one, but the lightbulb has to want to change.
Early on, in the year before my diagnosis and for a while afterwards,
I saw a number of psychologists. (I had also seen one for a while when I got really depressed in eighth
grade, and had also seen a couple of school psychologists in elementary
and junior high school, but didn't feel any of them helped much because
I was such an unwilling patient.)
I would typically seek a therapist out because I felt really bad, but after
a few months I would feel better and stop going. Early on I really
disliked having anything to do with psychologists and wouldn't see one
any more than I absolutely had to.
That's a pretty common phenomenon for therapy patients. It seems that
many of the people who seek out therapists are not in a position to get
better in any substantial way, because they have no commitment to making
any real change in their lives.
Achieving real change is a lengthy process, and it is often painful.
Seeing a therapist just until you feel better for a while is not likely
to effect meaningful change. And in fact for a bipolar person it's not
likely that the therapist will have made any difference in such a
short time - you could consult a brick wall for your depression for a few
months, and after a while the inevitable bipolar cycle while make you
There came a point, I think it was around the Spring of 1987, that I
noticed that I always kept falling into the same hole, and that I was not
having any success in making my situation any better. I was on medication
for much of the time since I was diagnosed, and although it provided some
relief, I did not feel that it did much to make my life substantially
better either. The symptoms weren't so bad with the medication
but I still experienced
them and life just plain sucked in general.
I made a really important decision then. It's the sort of decision
everyone needs to make if they're going to get anything out of therapy,
and is one of the more significant turning points in my life. I decided
I was going to see a psychotherapist and stick with it no matter what
happened, that I was going to keep going even if I felt better. I was
going to keep going until I was able to effect meaningful, positive,
lasting change in my life.
(Simply deciding to see a therapist for a long time is not enough.
You have to decide that you're really going to change, and to
face up to the work it will require and to face the fear that it will
arouse. Lots of people see therapists for years, even decades, and never
get anything out of it beside a little temporary comfort. I know
some people like this and I find them incredibly vexing.
These people don't want to change, and quite
possibly will never change. They may even feel that they're good little
therapy patients because they attend regular therapy for so long.
However they must be very frustrating to their therapists who spend years trying
to get their patients to face themselves only to have every effort
It's important to pick out a good therapist that you can work with
effectively. I don't think nearly all therapists are all that enlightened
- I'm sure almost all learn a lot of important theory in graduate school,
but I don't think any amount of theory is going to make anyone an
insightful human being.
Even if you find a therapist that's good in
general, you may not personally be able to work with them. For that
reason it's best to shop around. And that's why it's best not to wait
until you really need help to find a therapist - if you feel, as I did at
first, that psychologists are only for crazy people, then likely you're not
going to see one until you are crazy. When that happens it's hard
to take the time to shop around, and it's also much harder to pick up
the pieces. If you think you're ever going to need to see a therapist, it's
best to start when you're in a strong enough position emotionally to see
one on your own terms.
At the time I made my fateful decision, I was getting by OK. I was
desperately unhappy, but life was
manageable. It was not like when I first saw a
Caltech, when I was ready to climb out of my own skin.
I got a very poor impression of the first therapist I saw. Her
primary concern was whether I had the financial means to pay for her
sessions. She was really quite shrill about the money,
and kept emphasizing that
she did not offer a sliding scale. I had a good job at the time, and
would have had no problem paying her fee, but in the end decided she
was just not someone I cared to be around.
The second therapist I saw was someone I rather liked. I'd responded
to her ad in The Good Times
offerring New Age therapy. (Santa Cruz
is a pretty New Age kind of place, one reason I decided to stay there after
living in the urban Hell of Southern California.)
She seemed like a pretty happy and enlightened
woman, and was quite pleasant to talk to. She seemed to like me at
But when I explained my history to her - mania, depression,
hallucinations, hospitalization and finally my diagnosis, she said she
wasn't competent to deal with someone as troubled as I. She said I
should consult with someone who specialized in challenging cases.
I was really disappointed.
She gave me the names of several other psychologists. One of them
was someone I'd seen at the County Mental Health department who I thought
was competent enough but I didn't want to see anymore because I did not
feel that she cared for me as a person. The next one on the list was
the therapist I ended up sticking with.
All told, I saw my new therapist for thirteen years.
That's a lot of head-shrinking. I made a lot of changes during that
time. Aside from my emotional growth, I got my career as a programmer
started and built it up to eventually become a consultant, dated several
women and eventually met and got engaged to the woman I am now married
to. I also got my B.A. in Physics from UCSC and started (but unfortunately
did not complete) graduate school.
Life certainly hasn't been easy for me as a consultant, especially
since the economic downturn, but despite that I've been doing well
mentally and emotionally for quite some time, and I credit that to
my work with
my therapist, not to any medicine I might take. The only professional help
I require is a brief appointment with a doctor at the local mental health
clinic every month or two to check my symptoms and adjust my medication.
Life's been pretty damn hard but I'm able to deal with it, and despite
the obstacles I face I am able to maintain my optimism most of the time.
That's a far cry from my experience of 1987, when I had few external
difficulties but could barely tolerate living through the day - despite
Who is this miracle worker you ask? I'm sorry, I can't tell you, much
as I'd like to. When I wrote
my first web page
about my illness, I had her read it and then asked her if she'd like me
to give her name. She said she would rather her name be kept private.
I would rather give her the credit she deserves, but I respect her
feelings so I won't give her name.
One of the main objectives of therapy is for one to develop insight
into one's condition. I would like to discuss the many insights
I found but I
feel I could not discuss them adequately in the space I have here.
I would like to discuss just one of them, as the key point I learned
also applies to many other engineers and scientists. If you feel that you
would like to know more than I can say in what follows,
then I encourage you to read
book Neurotic Styles, especially the chapter on Obsessive
One day after I had been seeing my therapist for about seven years,
she said to me, "I think it's time" and handed me a photocopy of the
Obsessive Compulsive Style chapter of Shapiro's book. I took it home
to read and found it nothing short of astounding. As I read it I
often burst out in hysterical laughter as I came across something that
seemed deeply familiar from my own experience.
I still find it very embarrassing to find a
lifetime of experience so neatly summarized in a single chapter of
a book that was published when I was one year old. I just had to read
the whole book so I bought my own copy and have since read it several
Obsessive compulsive style is distinguished from obsessive compulsive
disorder by being a personality trait rather than a psychiatric
condition that can be treated with medication. It is characterized
by, among other things, rigid thinking and a distortion of the
experience of autonomy.
The most conspicuous characteristic of the
obsessive-compulsive's attention is its intense, sharp focus.
These people are not vague in their attention. They concentrate,
and particularly do they concentrate on detail. This is
evident, for example, in the Rorschach test in their accumulation,
frequently, of large numbers of small "detail-responses" and their
precise delineation of them (small profiles of faces all along
the edges of the inkblots, and the like), and the same affinity
is easily observed in everyday life. Thus, these people are
very often to be found among technicians; they are interested in,
and at home with, technical details... But the
obsessive-compulsive's attention, although sharp, is in certain
respects markedly limited in both mobility and range.
These people not only concentrate; they seem always to be
concentrating. And some aspects of the world are simply not
to be apprehended by a sharply focused and concentrated
attention... These people seem unable to allow their attention
simply to wander or passively permit it to be captured... It is
not that they do not look or listen, but that they are looking or
listening too hard for something else.
Shapiro goes on to describe the obsessive-compulsive's mode of
The activity - one could just as well say the
life - of these people is characterized by a more or less continuous
experience of tense deliberateness, a sense of effort, and of trying.
Everything seems deliberate for them. Nothing is effortless...
For the compulsive person, the quality of effort is present in
every activity, whether it taxes his capacities or not.
The obsessive-compulsive lives out their lives according to
a set of rules, regulations and expectations which he feels are
externally imposed but in reality are of his own making.
These people feel and function like driven, hardworking,
automatons pressing themselves to fulfill unending duties,
"responsibilities", and tasks that are, in their view, not chosen,
but simply there.
One compulsive patient likened his whole life to a train that
was running efficiently, fast, pulling a substantial load, but on
a track laid out for it.
My therapist focussed on my own rigid thinking starting very early
in our work together. My experience now is that I have a sense of
free will that I did not possess before I began seeing her. However
obsessive-compulsive style is a trait that is so deeply ingrained in
me that I don't think I can ever be completely free of it. However
I find that being able to focus my attention so intensively is
an advantage to my computer programming. I find that programming
allows me to experience being obsessive-compulsive in a way that I
find enjoyable, like taking a holiday to go back to a familiar place
from my past.
Reality Construction Kit
And so I come to the most important part of this article. If you take
nothing else away from what I have written, take this. This is
important whether or not you're mentally ill. I think we would all be
better off if more people understood the following:
Reality is not something that just happens to you.
Reality is something you make.
Most people never question the reality they experience. Most people are
fortunate to have no reason to ever question it; their reality works well
for them. The people who have reason to give up their reality are usually
forced into it, either because they are insane, or because life just
doesn't work for them. There is no satisfying
measurable definition of
sanity or insanity; instead, some people have a reality that works for them,
and some people don't. Some people might be satisfied with their reality
but society might not be satisfied with the behaviour their reality causes
them to exhibit, and so we sometimes
commit the mentally ill involuntarily to
Even if you don't feel the need to question your reality or make a new
one, I assert it is worthwhile for you to understand this in the event
you ever have to, or ever need to try to help someone make a new livable
world for themselves. At the very least it will help you to understand why
some people are so difficult to get along with, and help you relate to them.
It's not simply that some people hold different opinions,
it's that many people, not just
the insane, live in a completely different world from the one you
There is an objective reality, but we cannot experience it
directly. It is also without significance or meaning. The reality we
experience is drawn from the objective reality but sliced, diced, julienned
and pureed by the food processor of our bodies, cultures and minds.
This is a very old idea. But I first came to understand it when I
took a course at UCSC called
Anthropology of Religion, taught by
Schlegel. Among other things Dr. Schlegel discussed the cosmologies of
various cultures, and how they created their worlds.
He explained this in a
theoretical framework first advanced by the philosopher
Kant referred to objective reality as nouminal reality.
Nouminal reality is everything that exists, in all its detail and
complexity. It is too vast and complex to experience, and much of it is
out of reach of our senses because it is too large, too small, too far
away, lost in noise or detectable only with frequencies of light or
sound we cannot percieve.
Nouminal reality is also without meaning - it
is uninterpreted, because in nouminal reality there is no one to interpret
it. From Physics I know that all that exists are subatomic particles
interacting in incomprehensible numbers and complex ways. The division of
our world into spaces and objects is a fiction created by our minds - in
the nouminal world there are no objects, just a continuity of space
punctuated by infinitesimal particles.
There is no past and future in nouminal reality. There is
time. But the
only things that exist, exist now. What once was doesn't exist anymore
and what is yet to come does not yet exist.
Kant called what we actually experience subjective reality. It
is created from nouminal reality first through a process of selection and
We can only see the wavelengths of light
our eyes can
detect, hear the frequencies of sounds our ears will accept, and
understand a limited amount of complexity. Complexity is managed through
a process of that combines and simplifies the raw material of nouminal
reality into the subjective reality of the objects we percieve. We then
apply interpretation to the objects based on our culture and our
personalities. There is only so much we can pay attention to or even
notice at all. In a very real sense we only see or hear what we want to,
although the decision
might be made at a very primitive level in our brains. Some
sights or sounds are scary and capture our attention because during
evolution those of our ancestors who gave significance to such experiences
survived to reproduce.
Importantly, many of the selections and
interpretations involve choices, although unconscious ones, that are
influenced first by our biology, then our culture, then our personality.
And the salvation of the mentally ill is that although the choices are
made automatically at first, we can make new choices. I'm not saying it's
easy, but one can influence one's reality over time and eventually establish
new patterns of automatic choices that can result in a reality that is
much happier to live in than, say, the world of fear and despair I used to
The objective of psychotherapy is not to provide you with a professional
friend to listen to your tales of woe. It is to help you construct a new
reality. While you can expect your therapist to be sympathetic when you
are in crisis, a good therapist also challenges her client to question
their assumptions. Therapy is hard because the answers to such
questions are often painful to
Everyone who starts therapy hopes to get back
to the good old days before they began to suffer, but that's not what therapy
will do for them. Instead therapy helps you to let go of those of your
beliefs, even your most cherished beliefs, that led you astray. In the
end a successful therapy client may be very different than they ever were
but if the therapist does her work well the client will ultimately be
more truly themselves than they ever have been in their lives.
Therapy alone is enough to treat the neurotic individual. But as I said
there is a biological component to the construction of reality. Despite all
that therapy has done to help me, my brain is unable to regulate its
chemistry on its own. That is why I must take medication. If I didn't,
the power of my chemical imbalances would overwhelm me. Someone with a
mental illness whose roots come from biology must take medicine.
But someone with a biological mental illness
must have both kinds of treatment - only rarely if ever does one suffer
this illness without developing a neurosis. That's why I feel it is
irresponsible for general practitioners to prescribe psychiatric medicine
without referring the patient to a psychiatrist or psychotherapist. Giving
someone only medicine at best gives them temporary relief from their
symptoms without them ever developing the insight they really need to take
control of their lives.
So you can see that it is a great benefit that we construct our
realities. But it can be terrible too. In Anthropology of Religion Dr. Schlegel also discussed
millenarian movements, that
is the phenomenon of people believing the end of the world was at hand.
Sometimes a person comes along who has the dangerous combination of
being both delusional and charismatic. While of course charisma comes
naturally for some people, I feel it can also arise as an unusual symptom
of mental illness. After all if manic depressives can experience
euphoria as a symptom, cannot the terrible neediness of the paranoid
drive them to whatever lengths it takes to attract followers? These people
become cult leaders.
One of the other factors in creating a cult is for the group to become
isolated. The isolation contributes to the cult members losing their
grip on reality. There really is no such thing as "normal" in society -
at best there is only what is average, or commonly experienced by
most people. If someone strays too far from the mean, their interactions with
others will tend to correct them. The lack of that
correction is what causes the isolation that many of the
mentally ill experience to make them sicker. When a group gets isolated,
that's how a charismatic but delusional leader can bend the minds of
otherwise healthy people.
I was moved to write
my first web page about my illness shortly after the Heaven's Gate
mass suicide. When I heard about it I just freaked out and spent a couple of
weeks in a seriously troubled state of mind. It was the worst off I'd been
in a long time.
It wasn't simply that the incident vividly reminded me of the times I had
been suicidal. It was that it made me question the very foundations of my
reality. The people who "shed their vehicles" with the aid of
barbituates to go join the
extraterrestrial visitors were not depressed, in fact the videotapes they
left behind showed them to be apparently happy and healthy people,
and intelligent ones too: the cult operated a successful web design firm!
What upset me was the realization that despite my best efforts to maintain
a firm grounding in reality, I knew that even perfectly sane people could
be fooled into killing themselves quite enthusiastically.
I knew that I could be fooled too, if I wasn't careful.
This can happen to entire nations. If international and economic
conditions lay the right foundation, a single delusional and charismatic
leader can incite a whole country to become a murderous cult. In
For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of
Violence Alice Miller discussed the violent abuse Adolf Hitler's
father subjected him to as a child and how that led to his adulthood as the
pathologically violent leader of Nazi Germany.
Such pathology, while too horrible for most people to contemplate, is
an expected consequence of the reaction of normal human nature to extreme
circumstances. Lest you think it's not worth your concern,
I want you to consider for a moment the following: If it can happen to
Heaven's Gate, if it can happen in Jonestown,
if it can happen in Waco, if it can happen to Cambodia,
if it can happen even to a large,
populous, powerful, modern and industrialized
nation like Germany, then it can happen here.
Why am I Saying All This?
There was a long time that I tried to keep my illness a secret,
but I eventually decided to acknowledge it publicly. It was a
difficult decision, but ultimately I have decided it is a better way
to live. I can be open and honest, without feeling that I need to lie
to protect myself. If there are negative consequences to speaking
openly about my illness, I take a great deal of comfort in the
inspiration that my writing has been to others who suffer.
I was moved to write this particular article
today after I saw the movie
A Beautiful Mind
It is the story of
Forbes Nash, a brilliant mathematician who
was struck down early in his career by severe schizophrenia. He
sufferred in obscurity for decades (tormented by hallucinations and
paranoia) before he recovered in the early 90's. Dr. Nash was
the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economics for the pioneering work he
Game Theory as his Ph.D. thesis in the early 1950's.
Throughout my life I have always felt it important to speak out about
the things that I believed in. That's why I posted
John J. Chapman's Make
a Bonfire of Your Reputations on my website after I first read it
in The Cluetrain Manifesto.
However, I have not always been such an eloquent speaker. It took me
a long time to learn to write well, and when I was young I was unable to
speak convincingly at all. It has happened quite a few times that speaking
out caused me trouble, and it was especially difficult to get anyone
to listen during the times my illness made it difficult to organize my
It is likely that you've heard or read the ramblings of a mentally
ill person and written them off as inspired by delusions. But there is
often truth behind even the most paranoid manifestoes, sometimes a
terrible truth, if only you were able to decipher their real meaning.
I have found that getting people to listen to me doesn't require that
I avoid embarrassing or forbidden topics, only that I discuss them
eloquently enough that I gain my readers respect by the way I express my
ideas. I'd like to suggest that you learn to write and speak well too,
if you have something to say
that you think others won't want to hear.
One of the reasons I used to work so hard to keep my illness a secret
is that while in the grip of my symptoms I did a lot of things that I
regret. Most people regarded me as a pretty weird guy in general, and
having such a reputation to live down does not help when trying to
establish a career in a competitive industry or in trying to find
the affection of a loving woman. It might well happen that some
who knew me when I was the most ill might
post embarrassing comments in response
to this article. It might also happen that
potential consulting clients - or my current ones - read this and wonder
about my competence.
It is a risk that I accept in order to live true to myself. While at
times I am in the grip of insanity,
I take full responsibility for
everything I have ever done. The best defense that I have is to let my
words speak on my behalf.
Kuhn, the founder of the Gray Panthers said:
Stand before the people you fear and speak your mind
- even if your voice shakes.
I don't actually agree with what everything some
of these web sites have to say, but I
present them all so you can judge for yourself. I think the debate
While I provide links to these books online so you can easily find out
more about them, please do your part to support
local bookstores. Many of these can be found in any bookstore.
- Schiller, Lori and Bennett, Amanda, The Quiet Room: A Journey Out of
the Torment of Madness
- Pirsig, Robert M., Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance:
An Inquiry Into Values
- Kesey, Ken, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
- Edwards, Betty, The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain
- Peck, M. Scott, The Road Less Traveled
- Shapiro, David, Neurotic Styles
- Berne, Eric, Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships
- Langer, Ellen J., Mindfullness
- Aronson, Elliot, The Social Animal
- Jamison, Kay Redfield, An Unquiet Mind
- Jamison, Kay Redfield, Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness
and the Artistic Temperament
- Jamison, Kay Redfield, Night Falls Fast: Understanding Suicide
- Duke, Patty and Hochman, Gloria, A Brilliant Madness: Living with
- Duke, Patty and Turan, Kenneth, Call Me Anna: The Autobiography of
- Vonnegut, Mark, The Eden Express: A Memoir of Insanity
- Miller, Alice, Hannum, Hunter (translator) and Hannum, Hildegarde (translator),
For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of
- Cronkite, Kathy, On the Edge of Darkness: Conversations about
- Nasar, Sylvia, A Beautiful Mind: The Life of Mathematical Genius and
Nobel Laureate John Nash
Copyright © 2003 Michael David Crawford. All