Cats can be trained; not as easily or thorughly as dogs but its certainly possible. My living room is also my server room, the animal roster includes 4 dogs and 2 cats; I haven't had a serious problem yet.
My kitten doesn't play with the multitude of dangly wires because when he was first introduced to them, many had bare ends hooked up to a 24vdc power supply. Good for a nasty jolt, when bitten, but no permanent damage. Some of the others were connected to heavy things on the table above which were set to drop with a small tug. The cheap little electric fence chargers might work too, real ones are likely to be too powerful for less than a mile of wire. If you can't bear the pain of holding it for a few seconds, don't try it on small critters.
For keyboards and other non-cat surfaces, either water guns or nerf guns should be useful training aids. Mouse or rat traps with padded bars are good too, none of the 4 cats I've seen tangle with 'em ever got caught but they grasped the idea that they didn't want to risk getting a paw in one pretty quick. Pad the "snapper" part with cloth or something wrapped in tape, else you risk cuts if not broken bones for the furry folk.
Citric based "no chew" sauces have never been effective against puppies or cats in my experiance. One of the cats I know and helped train is fond of orange juice. I use clove oil or homemade cayanne sauce (dried chopped cayenne peppers, soak 'em alcohol for a while, strain and evaporate most of the fluid).
The key to training cats in my experiance isn't even so much getting them early as it is consistiency and immediate reaction. If the kitten ain't supposed to be on the keyboard there should be something bad happen to it every time a foot hits a key, if possible before the foot gets off the key. Tell 'em why they're getting pitched over your shoulder, too: cats don't speak Human (well, most don't) but they understand more than you might give 'em credit for.
Indirect animal effects are harder to deal with, everybody in my house sheds (including me) but I have to clean all the computers and such fairly regularly anyway. A bunch of overfull bookshelves line the hall leading into my living room, so dust is more of a concern for me than animal or people hair.