While the concept of transfering information by the non-local nature of space on the quantum-level is accepted, I think a key factor in determining the practicality of this method of teleportation is left out - namely the entangled particles used to transfer the information.
In the experimental form of teleportation we have currently observed, the teleportation is carried out by a pair of entangled photons. Due to the entangled nature of these photons, when one of them is acted upon by some operation, the other one will instantaneously "collapse" into a state which mirrors that of the photon that was operated on. This is due to the non-local nature of our reality on the quantum level. If space was local (cause and effect were limited by the speed of light) then there is no way that the other photon could collapse into the mirror state instantaneously, as observed (I know I've washed over it quick, but it would probably take a bit more space than most people would like to read to fully explain it).
Now, the crux of the matter is the entangled photons. In the lab, you have all the time in the world to wait for the entangled photons to be created, sent to their respective detectors and measured (operated on). You don't think of the photon travelling time as being part of the signal sending time.
So to teleport using this method, you would have to generate entangled photons somewhere in the universe and wait for a portion of them to arrive at your "sending station". Once they got to you, you could start sending the signal. You would also need your recieving station to be set up at the place where the other entangled photon is going to arrive.
The practicality of this method (for space exploration) is fundamentally limited in that you would need to spend at least the time equal to the distance between your sending and recieving station divided by the speed of light(time=distance/velocity) to actually be in a position where you could even begin to start analyzing signals. If you started generating entangled photons at the halfway point, you would get teleportation as soon as you arrived at the recieving station. As you can see, this form of teleportation will still limit our ventures in space to our local dependance on not travelling faster than the speed of light.
Once you did have these stations set up however, you could start instantaneous transmission, so for uses on earth (or within our "physical reach"... ;) this could provide a good means to teleport things (theoretically).
If you're really interested, read this article on quantum philosophy (it's from Sci. Am., 1992, but it's still quite fresh and a good overview):
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