Technically, what we observe today are wavelength (and correspondingly frequency/energy)fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background.
The cosmic microwave background is the left-over photons that were created during the big-bang. As time passes (and the universe expands), these photons gradually lose energy, stretching out their wavelengths. This corresponds to a "cooling" of the universe. Currently, the background radiation (which is really a giant soup of photons encompassing the whole of the known universe) is at the microwave wavelength scale. In observing the CMB, we find that it is very homogenous in every direction. (It looks the same no matter where you look). However, if you begin to study small fluctations in it, you can notice certain overall trends.
To the first order, you see that it is the same everywhere, however, if you look a bit deeper (differences of about 10^-3 degrees Kelvin I think) you can start to notice that there is a general trend (anisotropy) that explains the Earths relative motion about the sun (This was the first observational proof that the Earth actually rotates about the sun, and not vice versa, with respect to other galactic objects - it took over 400 years to confirm! - and to think that pretty much all of the worlds population accepted it without proof for so long)
The boomarang project (and some others like it... I forget the names) measures the temperature (wavelength, etc etc) of this background to very pricise values. As we study the CMB to more and more precision, we should be able to uncover trends on the "universe" scale relating to it's initial state. Inflation in the early universe would have an effect on the entire universe (including this background radiation) and therefor we should be able to find evidence of it in these measurements.
Inflation is a term used to describe a period of time right after the initial release of the universe (big bang or whatever)in which space expanded at an accelerated rate. This supposidly allowed minute quantum effects in the early universe to propagate very quickly through the majority of the initial energy (matter, whatever)... allowing larger structures to form (galaxies, blah blah blah...).
Without inflation, the matter in the universe would have been more or less homogeneously distributed on all scales (a matter soup, if you will), and therefor we wouldn't have had the concentrations neccessary to bring about star formation, planets... us.
So finding evidence for this theory is a good thing... I suppose. ;)
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