I was going to post something very similar to the above. It is certainly unfair to characterize the medieval period as "dark ages." However, your list goes a little overboard. Important steps may have been made in each of these areas, but many of them clearly were not invented during medieval times. Nearly everything on your list existed in one form or another in ancient Rome.
The nation-state: I have seen people use this term to describe very different concepts. The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as "A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language." What else was Rome? Ancient Egypt, Greece, Israel, etc. also meet this definition.
Parliament: The Roman Senate was a deliberative assembly, representing the populace and limiting the power of the monarch. The Runnymede Charter was undoubtedly a crucial milestone in the development of modern representative democracy, but nothing in the medieval period exceeded the golden age of Rome in this regard.
Constitutions: Again, Rome had a constitution, in the sense of fundamental law that could not be overridden by any act of the Senate, praetors/consuls/triumvirs, etc. Many other ancient cultures were built on fundamental codes of law, and I'm sure you could find several that wrote them down in detail.
Jury trials: Cicero argued several cases in front of citizen juries.
Banks: Yep, Florence and the Medici family in particular did invent modern banking. As far as I know, nothing similar existed anywhere eise.
Stock markets: Were not invented in any recognizably modern form until well after the medieval period.
Guilds: Existed in Rome.
Christianity as we know it: If you mean Nicene Christianity, the Nicene Council convened prior to what is generally considered the medieval period. If you mean modern Christianity, most modern Christians are Protestants, and the Reformation was post-medieval. If you mean modern Catholicism, you might have a point if you can deal appropriately with the English Bible (and consequent rise of literalism, and decline in priestly authority - you can't sell plenary indulgences to people who understand the Bible in its own right), the loss of Papal authority over the kings of "nation-states," and the various other ways in which Catholicism faild to survive the Reformation intact. Oh, and some more modern inconveniences like Vatican II.
Architecture: The Aqueducts. The Pantheon. The Colosseum. Hagia Sophia. Or if you mean, the concept of architecture as an academic discipline, consider the writings of Vitruvius.
Romantic Love: If you had said chivalric love you might have had a point. Romantic love, in the broader sense of making goo-goo eyes and losing rationality about the object of your affections, appears to be a factor of all human cultures.
Windmills: First appeared in Persia (modern Iran & Afghanistan). Medieval Europe did apparently invent the more efficient horizontal-axis configuration, though.
Cursive writing: Do you mean, writing with the letters all joined up together so you don't have to lift the pen? If so, one pre-medieval example is Egyptian demotic script.
Punctuation & space between words: You must be joking. Have you never seen classical Latin or Greek writing?
Municipal governments: Do you mean, governments of cities? Cities like Rome? Or do you mean, city governments able to make autonomous decisions within the framework of a larger government - like, say, Pompeii?
The mechanical clock: Water clocks existed long before the medieval period, but you're right about clockwork clocks.
Firearms: In common use as a weapon of war, yes, I think you're correct.
Scissors: I won't contest this one, though I have vague memories of Celtic devices (La Tene culture) that looked a lot like scissors. I can't find any references right now, though.
Transoceanic ships: There is ample evidence of ancient ocean crossings. The fact of early settlement on Pacific islands should be evidence enough.
The printing press: This was indeed invented during the medieval period, but was also arguably one of the key forces driving the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution - hence ending the medieval period. Certainly the printing press did not exist or have any role to play in mainstream medieval culture.
Glass: Examples of Egyptian manufactured glass have been found.
Pants and skirts: Pants, maybe. Skirts have probably existed since the invention of cloth, which was certainly paleolithic and probably predated homo sapiens sapiens. Homo erectus probably wore cloth. Make a sheet of cloth, tie it around your waist, and you have a skirt.
Buttons: From time to time you can find Roman buttons on ebay. However, they were mostly used with leather, you might be right that the medieval period saw the first use of bottons as a fastener for light cloth. However, I still very much doubt it - I would be very surprised if China didn't do it first.
The compass: Was invented in China. Referneces to Chinese compasses exist in the first century A.D.
The stirrup: Almost certainly a medieval invention, so armored knights could stay on their horses more reliably.
Fertilizer / Crop Rotation: The Egyptians probably knew quite a lot about this, but the three-field system was certainly a major medieval advance.
Encyclopaedias: You will have to do some serious definitional fiddling to exclude writings of general knowledge from other cultures, but the word "encyclopaedia" itself is indeed of medieval origin.
Modern European nationalities and languages: All the Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portugese, Romanian, etc) come from Latin. And many of the current nations of Europe were originally regions of the Roman Empire: France (Gaul), Spain, Italy, Germany. Also, keep in mind that the modern face of Europe was drastically altered during the twentieth century, primarily as a result of the world wars.
So yes, the medieval period should not be discounted as a time of nothing but building castles and burning peasants - but at the same time, it was not a particularly rich time of invention or cultural achievement; its correct interpretation is a time of shock and then recovery after the fall of Rome.
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