How about looking things up as opposed to prattling on based upon assumptions. It took me all of 3 minutes to find a copy of the laws under which these seizures occured. The relevant law is 21 U.S.C. Sections 846, 853 and 863 and I'll reproduce section 863 which concerns paraphenalia (843 is very general and 846 deals with seizures):
CITE 21 USC Sec. 863 01/26/98
EXPCITE TITLE 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER 13 - DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
SUBCHAPTER I - CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT
Part D - Offenses and Penalties
TEXT Sec. 863. Drug paraphernalia
(a) In general
It is unlawful for any person -
(1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
(2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate
commerce to transport drug paraphernalia; or
(3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.
Anyone convicted of an offense under subsection (a) of this
section shall be imprisoned for not more than three years and fined
under title 18.
(c) Seizure and forfeiture
Any drug paraphernalia involved in any violation of subsection
(a) of this section shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture upon
the conviction of a person for such violation. Any such
paraphernalia shall be delivered to the Administrator of General
Services, General Services Administration, who may order such
paraphernalia destroyed or may authorize its use for law
enforcement or educational purposes by Federal, State, or local
(d) ''Drug paraphernalia'' defined
The term ''drug paraphernalia'' means any equipment, product, or
material of any kind which is primarily intended or designed for
use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, concealing,
producing, processing, preparing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling,
or otherwise introducing into the human body a controlled
substance, possession of which is unlawful under this subchapter.
It includes items primarily intended or designed for use in
ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana, (FOOTNOTE
1) cocaine, hashish, hashish oil, PCP, or amphetamines into the
human body, such as -
(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''marihuana,''.
(1) metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic
pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads,
or punctured metal bowls;
(2) water pipes;
(3) carburetion tubes and devices;
(4) smoking and carburetion masks;
(5) roach clips: meaning objects used to hold burning material,
such as a marihuana cigarette, that has become too small or too
short to be held in the hand;
(6) miniature spoons with level capacities of one-tenth cubic
centimeter or less;
(7) chamber pipes;
(8) carburetor pipes;
(9) electric pipes;
(10) air-driven pipes;
(13) ice pipes or chillers;
(14) wired cigarette papers; or
(15) cocaine freebase kits.
(e) Matters considered in determination of what constitutes drug
In determining whether an item constitutes drug paraphernalia, in
addition to all other logically relevant factors, the following may
(1) instructions, oral or written, provided with the item
concerning its use;
(2) descriptive materials accompanying the item which explain
or depict its use;
(3) national and local advertising concerning its use;
(4) the manner in which the item is displayed for sale;
(5) whether the owner, or anyone in control of the item, is a
legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community,
such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products;
(6) direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of
the item(s) to the total sales of the business enterprise;
(7) the existence and scope of legitimate uses of the item in
the community; and
(8) expert testimony concerning its use.
This section shall not apply to -
(1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to
manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or
(2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is
imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail or by
any other means, and traditionally intended for use with tobacco
products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory.
SOURCE (Pub. L. 91-513, title II, Sec. 422(a), as added Pub. L. 101-647,
title XXIV, Sec. 2401(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4858; Pub. L.
91-513, title II, Sec. 422(b)-(f), formerly Pub. L. 99-570, title
I, Sec. 1822(b)-(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-51, amended Pub.
L. 100-690, title VI, Sec. 6485, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4384;
renumbered Sec. 422(b)-(f) of Pub. L. 91-513; amended Pub. L.
101-647, title XXIV, Sec. 2401(b), (c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat.
Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2401(b), transferred section 1822(b) to (f)
of Pub. L. 99-570, which was classified to section 857 of this
title, to subsecs. (b) to (f) of this section.
1990 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2401(c)(1), substituted
''fined under title 18'' for ''fined not more than $100,000''.
Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2401(b), redesignated subsec. (b) of
section 857 of this title as subsec. (b) of this section.
Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2401(b), redesignated
subsecs. (c) to (e) of section 857 of this title as subsecs. (c) to
(e) of this section.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2401(c)(2), made technical
amendment to reference to ''This section'' to correct reference to
corresponding provision of original act.
Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2401(b), redesignated subsec. (f) of
section 857 of this title as subsec. (f) of this section.
1988 - Subsec. (d) (formerly Sec. 857(d)). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec.
6485(1), substituted '', possession of which is unlawful under the
Controlled Substances Act'' for ''in violation of the Controlled
Substances Act''. See 1990 Amendment note above.
Subsec. (f)(2) (formerly Sec. 857(f)(2)). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec.
6485(2), substituted ''traditionally'' for ''primarily'' before
''intended for use with''. See 1990 Amendment note above.
SECREF SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
This section is referred to in section 881 of this title; title
18 sections 1956, 3663.
Unity of mankind means: No escape for anyone anywhere. - Milan Kundera