At this point in time, I see the situation like this:
Dawn of US history, whites enslaved blacks, and utilized them for labor, building up the status of whites economically and socially for a good period of time (decades to centuries). Civil War breaks out, whites say "Okay, you blacks are free." That is, "We're not giving you anything for all those years you were enslaved, but we'll use you now as a cheap source of labor."
Thus, they went from being slaves, to being poor, directly as a result of the slavery problem. The former slaves were never made equal to whites when they were liberated. In many ways, they were continued to be treated as second class citizens. This treatment continued in the US for another century, with blacks largely still treated as second class citizens, with few voting rights, and continued systematic poverty.
Only by 1964 with the Voting Rights Act and other civil rights legislation do you ever see the US truly start to attempt to undo continued systematic efforts to maintain black poverty. However, simply deconstructing the self-reinforcing system of poverty that had been in effect for centuries still does not resolve the problem that continues to occur.
Thus, what do we know at this point in time? First, we know that blacks tend to be in worse economic conditions then whites. Second, we know that the system has reinforced black poverty for a number of centuries. Third, we know that there has never been an attempt to correct the problem made by whites in the first place. At most, aside from affirmative action programs, whites have only removed offical barriers to entry that were forcefully keeping blacks impoverished.
As such, blacks today were born of parents who had been granted some liberties in 1964, but are largely poor due to the existing system of black impoverishment that had existed prior to that. Their parents were born poor, due to the system of impoverishment that their grandparents had lived under. Their grandparents born under the great grandparents, and so on and so forth, back to slavery, where the problem originated. Thus, blacks largely poorer then others due to the fact that there was never, ever, an attempt to resolve the problem of black poverty. Instead, we just say "Oh, the people who caused that were alive a hundred years ago. We're all equal now."
Instead of whites seeing it as correcting a social injustice (systematic black poverty), they see it as punishment against them, since they are the ones who stand to lose the most by addressing the problem. Furthermore, they see this as unfair, because they do not believe they created the problem, and because they did not create it, they should not be responsible for it. Thus, blacks are told that, while what our forefathers did was wrong, they've now been free for a hundred and fifty years, and if they had just worked hard enough, they wouldn't be poor anymore.
However, a poor black was required to go to a poor black school for decades, which gave him little to no chance of being accepted into a higher education, insuring that he will remain poor, and doing manual work for much of his life. His poverty was created by his parents poverty. And as such, his children's poverty will be insured due to his poverty. And this poverty is created through systematic bias against blacks that permiated all of society for centuries in the US. Simply removing the blocks does not correct this systematic problem. It removes the blocks.
Now, it is possible for the exceptional few to attain near equality with whites, yes. However, there is constant discouragement for that accomplishment, that persists due to the nature of education and the market in the US. Simply providing the potential does not equate to resolving the original injustice. Furthermore, saying "Oh, that injustice that's affecting you now happened a long time ago, so its not an issue anymore" does not resolve the problem.
I will even go on to say that the existing systems of affirmative action or calls for reparations will not solve the problem either. But the important thing to remember is that there exists a systematic problem of black poverty in the US that reinforces itself over time. Short of active involvement by some force, this reinforcement of poverty won't go away.
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