Kuro5hin.org: technology and culture, from the trenches
create account | help/FAQ | contact | links | search | IRC | site news
[ Everything | Diaries | Technology | Science | Culture | Politics | Media | News | Internet | Op-Ed | Fiction | Meta | MLP ]
We need your support: buy an ad | premium membership

US Encryption Export Laws and Foreign Students

By elzubeir in Technology
Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 03:03:03 PM EST
Tags: Freedom (all tags)

I am an 'international' student studying in the United States. I have been going to school here for the past 4 years, studying Computer Science. I come from Sudan, a country blacklisted in America's list of terrorist sponsoring states. Before that, we were just a poor country otherwise known for our hospitality and our long-running civil war.

So, now that you know my background, here is a scenario. I am at home, and I would like to submit my physics homework. I have to login to a web-based system and to do so. This process requires 128-bit encryption enabled browsers. So, I go ahead and try to download the 128-bit encryption enabled browser (Netscape/IE/Mozilla/you name it). The license agreement is followed by the US Export Laws which, to make it simple, says everyone can use this unless you are from one of the Fabulous 7! Namely, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Libya, Sudan and Syria. It explicitly says, if you are a national of those countries, you cannot download the software and use it.

So, now I can't submit my homework. So, I do this while I'm up at school, but still not sure if I am still violating a law. Now it's registration time, school is closed, and I would like to register a little early and pay online. I can't do that! I would like to pay my bills using online banking, no sir! I can't do that either.

So now I wonder, is there any kind of exception made for students studying in the US? Although I know this is a law that the authority cannot implement (and in my opinion, any law you cannot implement is a bad law), but are there others in my position? Or even, is my school (and others) risking violating US laws and regulations by freely installing this software in their labs?

Also, how does OpenSSH and other open source software comes to play? In other words, what are the list of packages that are not developed in the US that I can actually use as alternatives, if any?


Voxel dot net
o Managed Hosting
o VoxCAST Content Delivery
o Raw Infrastructure


Related Links
o Also by elzubeir

Display: Sort:
US Encryption Export Laws and Foreign Students | 42 comments (40 topical, 2 editorial, 0 hidden)
Where are you (3.25 / 8) (#1)
by wiredog on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:05:44 AM EST

If you are at school, in the US (or not in one of the 7), then it's legal for you to download and use the 128 bit version.

Peoples Front To Reunite Gondwanaland: "Stop the Laurasian Separatist Movement!"
You're wrong. (2.20 / 5) (#3)
by Vs on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:18:13 AM EST

From http://home.netscape.com/computing/download/:
*Netscape Strong Encryption Eligibility Netscape Browser software contains encryption technology that is subject to the U.S. Export Administration Regulations and other U.S. law, and may not be exported or re-exported to certain countries (currently Afghanistan (Taliban-controlled areas), Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan and Syria) or to persons or entities prohibited from receiving U.S. exports (including Denied Parties, entities on the Bureau of Export Administration Entity List, and Specially Designated Nationals). For more information on the U.S. Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 C.F.R. Parts 730-774, and the Bureau of Export Administration ("BXA"), please see the BXA homepage
If your statement is based on the mentioned EAR or BXA, please provide exact reference.
Where are the immoderate submissions?
[ Parent ]
Or I'm wrong :-) (3.50 / 2) (#4)
by Vs on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:20:01 AM EST

I sincerely apologise, now I (claim to) see what you mean.

Please everyone mod me down.
Where are the immoderate submissions?
[ Parent ]
Your time zone (2.66 / 3) (#7)
by wiredog on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:51:20 AM EST

Must be one where the coffee hasn't had time to hit yet. Happens to most of us at one time or another.

Peoples Front To Reunite Gondwanaland: "Stop the Laurasian Separatist Movement!"
[ Parent ]
Re: Your time zone (none / 0) (#16)
by Vs on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 01:48:43 PM EST

Yes, probably. I only have my lucid moments the instant I hit the "Post" button it seems.
Where are the immoderate submissions?
[ Parent ]
I don't think you were wrong... (none / 0) (#18)
by Parity on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 02:01:35 PM EST

I think a specially designated national is a national of the countries that you can't re-export strong crypto to; I could be mistaken, but the old legislation read that you couldn't export strong crypto to any nation or transmit it to any foreign national, period, end of statement; I know things have loosened up some, and some forms of legalese are more impentetrable than others (like those referring you to a code which most of us don't have any easy access to, though I suppose I could go to the nearest university and poke in their law library.)

So... what was it you thought you saw that made you change your mind?

Parity None

[ Parent ]
This is pretty funny (4.40 / 10) (#2)
by theboz on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:10:52 AM EST

The situation itself is not, but the rediculousness of the laws are. If you are in one of these countries considered to be a rogue state, how do U.S. laws and treaties apply to you? What could they do if you downloaded Netscape? While it might not be too much of a stretch to say that Bush would want to bomb your country for it, I don't think it's that likely. I say just download it, and leave it up to the company that made it available to be punished by their own oppressive government.


No new (4.66 / 3) (#8)
by Pac on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:56:22 AM EST

As far as I know, these restrictions are very old and have no conection with the recent political happenings.

Strong cryptography has been considered "ammunition" by the US and subject to harsh restrictions since ever (ever probably being the end of World War II). Phil Zimmerman (surname wrongly spelled, poster too lazy to look it up) was arrested and harrassed by the FBI for developing PGP and for letting it reach the Internet.

The list of forbidden countries changes from time to time (I believe that in 1995 Sudan was not even part of it), reflecting the changes in the foreign landscape as seem from Washington.

I remember the MIT ftp server automatically checking (or trying to) if you were connecting from within the US when you wanted to download certain software in the early 90s. Some other high profile sites also do this to this day.

Evolution doesn't take prisoners

[ Parent ]
Pretty funny until someone puts an eye out (3.66 / 3) (#9)
by Wondertoad on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 12:18:48 PM EST

I guess you figured it was just being polite, but you realize you've just given advice on getting around the US encryption laws to a foreign national in a rogue nation, on a website that is known to be read by the FBI.

Ask 'em not to tighten the cuffs to the last click, they're more comfy that way.


[ Parent ]
Not really breaking any laws (5.00 / 4) (#13)
by theboz on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 01:13:52 PM EST

I am not providing him the means to download the software, merely stating that I don't care if he does or not. It is not my job to enforce any U.S. laws, so I am not doing anything wrong.

If the feds don't want people from Sudan downloading browsers from U.S. sites, then they should provide everyone with software that would do so. It isn't my responsibility to enforce some law that I am against. I am allowed to voice my opinion and not be held accountable for the actions of someone else. He has my permission to go spend the night in the Lincoln room of the White House as well, but my permission is just as meaningless there.

[ Parent ]

rogue nation? (none / 0) (#32)
by elzubeir on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 09:55:08 AM EST

First of all, I am a national of Sudan, not 'rogue nation'. I detest that naming. Secondly, I am currently in the US.

[ Parent ]
I don't like the words either (none / 0) (#36)
by Wondertoad on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 02:44:13 PM EST

The problem here, as always, is that the people are not represented by the government. And that goes for both sides.

[ Parent ]
Hope you said goodbye (4.27 / 11) (#5)
by Pac on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:42:42 AM EST

So you are in the US studying Computer Science. I hope you have said your farewells to the people at home last time you visited, because when you finish college YOU will be the repository of a lot of knowledge that can not be legally sent from the US to Sudan.

That means you can not be re-exported back home.

Evolution doesn't take prisoners

funny (none / 0) (#27)
by elzubeir on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 09:27:54 PM EST

Heh.. yeah, I didn't think about that. At first, I had this tendency to want to learn the 'forbidden'. But in reality, my interests have shifted toward what is practical when I go back home than what is probably going to land me a job as a cab driver. Yup, a lot of people come here, study stuff that has no industrial/business foundation back home, and end up with no jobs.

[ Parent ]
Don't take career decisions too soon (none / 0) (#34)
by Pac on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 10:53:56 AM EST

I am brazilian, I have never been to Sudan, but from what I know it is a poor country with much left to be done yet.

So, you probably should not be limiting your career choices to areas where there are jobs available now. The scenario may change quickly in the next couple of years (well, it has been changing quickly everywhere for many years now, and I don't think this process is about to stop) and knowledge previously "useless" may suddenly become vital.

Evolution doesn't take prisoners

[ Parent ]
But wait, it gets better... (3.87 / 8) (#6)
by jabber on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 11:46:12 AM EST

What are the legal consequences for your University and CS Professor, for respectively selling to you a book, and lecturing to you about, encryption.

[TINK5C] |"Is K5 my kapusta intellectual teddy bear?"| "Yes"

teachings... (3.66 / 3) (#10)
by jeffy124 on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 12:26:08 PM EST

There are no consequences for the school/prof/student for a foreign student taking a course in crypto. Most of the time these courses dont use strong crypto anyway, mostly for simplicity in teaching the theory of the algorithm, not the strength of implementation.

also, re-read the article. you'll notice the guy's trouble is with a submission of work for a physics class and major administrative issues (class registration, paying tuition)
You're the straw that broke the camel's back!
[ Parent ]

I've read, and I've had the problem.. So there. :) (4.75 / 4) (#14)
by jabber on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 01:16:15 PM EST

I read the article and fully understood it. Thank you fo ryour concern.

I've also had the experience where, as a non-citizen, I was taking Master's level work in cryptography. The work was to be published. The University CS Department elected to make inquiries to make sure that my learning, and subsequently publishing strong crypto information (classifies as a munition) was not going to pose some unexpected problem.

Hence my post, which was intended as a genuine caution, not some flippant remark. Honestly folks, this trollophobia has gone a little too far.

[TINK5C] |"Is K5 my kapusta intellectual teddy bear?"| "Yes"
[ Parent ]

i'm surprised... (4.00 / 3) (#15)
by jeffy124 on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 01:28:13 PM EST

i must say surprised that your school questioned the legality of your paper. I would think schools would uphold the notion that a student can publish what they please in terms of first amendment rights, etc. Quesions-- How long ago was this? Was it right after the DMCA flap involving Dr Felton at Princeton? Or was it before then? Has the school given actual reasons for interfering with your work? Was your paper ever ultimately published?
You're the straw that broke the camel's back!
[ Parent ]
Some answers (5.00 / 3) (#17)
by jabber on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 01:59:18 PM EST

This was in 98/99. It was not so much a concern that I publish something, but that I 'export' it (either republish it overseas, or collaborate with someone there, or God only knows what people were thinking). Ultimatelly, it turned out to be a non-issue. I think that the Consitution and the Freedoms outlined therein apply only to US citizens, frankly, but yes, Freedom of Speach was brought up, as was Academic Freedom.

Additionally, I am not a citizen of the 7 restricted nations. My dept just wanted to make sure everything was on the up and up.. Ultimately, the paper was rescoped for reasons unrelated to this matter, and publication was not a problem at all.

It was pretty shocking to me though that it even came up.. I have issues with crypto tools being restricted in the first place.. They're not a weapon or an explosive after all.. Even if it was, it is perfectly legal to teach someone the mechanical blueprint of a gun, is it not?

Fortunatelly, it was all seen as a big formality by the administration during a time when things were sort of shifty. I suspect that it all started because someone made an off the cuff joking remark, which got some hypersensitive person asking questions.

Still, if the article author is already being inconvenienced by these restrictive regulations, s/he may be in store for some great personal frustrations if s/he is to pursue work in this area. Just something to watch out for.

[TINK5C] |"Is K5 my kapusta intellectual teddy bear?"| "Yes"
[ Parent ]

Books & Encryption (4.00 / 1) (#28)
by rgoshko on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 09:54:53 PM EST

A book talking about, explaining, or even listing code dealing with encryption, is protected in the US as freedom of speech, and freedom of the press.

Until the export laws were relaxed, this is how PGP got out into the "wild". There was a whole project outside the US devoted to scanning and via OCR converting the printed texts into source code.

[ Parent ]

fortify.net (3.75 / 4) (#12)
by BlowCat on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 12:44:51 PM EST

You can use Fortify for Netscape from fortify.net

It only supports old versions of Netscape (the latest supported version is 4.72), but it should be good enough to submit your homework. Not sure about the bills - your bank won't change their pages just for you if you have a problem.

fortify.net is hosted in Australia.

.no (3.87 / 8) (#19)
by vambo rool on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 02:28:57 PM EST

Why are you downloading from the US? Opera is in Norway.

Opera? (2.00 / 3) (#22)
by SIGFPE on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 06:43:37 PM EST

Aha, it's not surprising I couldn't remember it, I could barely make it run long enough to stay in my long term memory without crashing under Linux, W2K or MacOS X.
[ Parent ]
Really? (none / 0) (#23)
by vambo rool on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 07:27:43 PM EST

I've never had a problem. (Win 98, 98SE and 2k)

[ Parent ]
Old Opera (none / 0) (#30)
by bugmaster on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 07:36:31 AM EST

Yeah, the old version was as stable as a house of cards, only not as pretty. The new version is much better though. It crashes very rarely (more rarely than Mozilla does, f.ex.), and when it does, it saves the state, so you can come back exactly to the same place you were before.
[ Parent ]
Well that's pretty cool (none / 0) (#35)
by SIGFPE on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 01:40:36 PM EST

and when it does, it saves the state, so you can come back exactly to the same place you were before
Now that's a nice feature. But as the primary platform on which I'm interested in is MacOS X and the latest version seems to run for barely more than a couple of minutes I'm not sure it helps me!

And I hope it doesn't bring it back in exactly the same state :-)
[ Parent ]

Bah, 128bit for homework? (1.33 / 3) (#21)
by imrdkl on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 05:11:04 PM EST

Somehow, I doubt this. Even if your school does provide SSL for your teacher's webs, I doubt that the server is specifically configured to disallow export ciphers.

huh? (4.50 / 2) (#26)
by elzubeir on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 09:20:32 PM EST

I am not sure what you mean. It's not a "teacher's" website, it's a class site. Besides, that was just an example. A better example would be the school's web-based email system. Each student receives a free mandatory email account on it (this is so the university can send official announcements, etc to that account).

[ Parent ]
OpenSSH etc. (5.00 / 3) (#24)
by 0xA on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 08:26:31 PM EST

Also, how does OpenSSH and other open source software comes to play?

The OpenBSD project, which OpenSSH is a part of, is based in Canada. Use it as much as you want, however you want.

Until the U.S. started removing certain export restrictions during the past couple years there have been several Open Source / freeware products that were developed completely outside of the U.S. to avoid things like this (and possibly the RSA patent). The infamous "International" PGP version was brought on by this as well.

Things have improved the past few years but I guess not for everybody. I new of the existance of the "Fabulous 7" but never really paused to consider the significance of it. Pretty damn silly really. If I found myself in this position I would probably just go ahead and download the software. Don't consider this as advice however, I am in a different position, you want to go to school there.

I just went and downloaded Opera, then installed it. I did not have to agree to any license mentioning export (Opera is developed in Norway) nor is anything mentioned in Help -> About. It mentions that it uses OPenSSL, I'm not surewhere that is developed but I *think* it is also outside the U.S.

Opera is probably your best bet for a browser, just go to www.opera.com and download it from one of the sites outside the U.S.

Opera and others (5.00 / 1) (#25)
by elzubeir on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 09:18:13 PM EST

I know of Opera. In fact, I have registered it since 5.0 came out. I was disappointed in some other aspects of the browser (non-related) so I stopped using it for awhile. But, it certainly is a viable option.

The question is, is using those other browsers and applications (developed in the US) in a university computer lab considered to be a violation of the law, or do I have to actually download it to be in that position? That is because, certainly the university is not going to roll out version of Opera in their labs (the official browser is Netscape, and I am in no position to influence that).

[ Parent ]
No not at all (none / 0) (#38)
by 0xA on Wed Feb 27, 2002 at 01:52:45 AM EST

I got this from Netscape's download page

Netscape Browser software contains encryption technology that is subject to the U.S. Export Administration Regulations and other U.S. law, and may not be exported or re-exported to certain countries (currently Afghanistan (Taliban-controlled areas), Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan and Syria) or to persons or entities prohibited from receiving U.S. exports (including Denied Parties, entities on the Bureau of Export Administration Entity List, and Specially Designated Nationals). For more information on the U.S. Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 C.F.R. Parts 730-774, and the Bureau of Export Administration ("BXA"), please see the BXA homepage.

I interpret this to mean that you can't "export" the software to these countries. Your status as an Sudanese national isn't relevant as long as you are not moving the software across a border. Just using it is fine.

This is still silly but not quite that silly.

[ Parent ]

Export Control (4.00 / 2) (#29)
by Bad Harmony on Mon Feb 25, 2002 at 10:13:29 PM EST

I don't pretend to be an expert on this subject, but I have noticed a change where I work. Everyone recently received a briefing on export control that said that no technology, such as hardware, software, or technical data, can be sent or given to a foreign country or foreign national, without the prior approval of an export control officer. That isn't just restricted to the "axis of evil", it includes all foreign countries.

5440' or Fight!

Student Visas (5.00 / 1) (#31)
by srichman on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 09:09:36 AM EST

There are bigger things you might want to be worrying about than downloading strong encryption web browsers.
"The Feinstein-Kyl legislation would:

Prohibit persons from obtaining student visas if they come from terrorist supporting states. However, the Secretary of State could waive the ban if the student passes an extensive background check and the Secretary certifies that the student would not pose a threat to national security."

bigger things? (5.00 / 1) (#33)
by elzubeir on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 09:59:05 AM EST

That would be true if I weren't already in the US. For this reason, I did not consider going back home for summer breaks, etc. because that would jeopardize my chances of coming back to finish off my studies.

Had this been the case (your above link) when I first applied for school, I would have simply not even come here. Too bad that's too late, I'm almost done.. and I probably won't ever come back. Most people don't like to go where they don't feel welcomed. It's human nature.

[ Parent ]
Real input on this subject badly needed (3.00 / 1) (#37)
by trentg on Tue Feb 26, 2002 at 03:21:26 PM EST

Doesn't anyone have any "real" information on what elzubeir is asking? How does the Netscape license not apply to him? Any lawyers out there? How can he be forced to use the technology for school email but forbidden by law for all other uses? Trent

I'm not a lawyer, but your outlook is not rosy (5.00 / 2) (#39)
by jiuyen on Wed Feb 27, 2002 at 07:39:14 PM EST

This article raised my curiosity, and I looked into it.

The export of encryption technologies such as those included in Netscape is restricted under the Bureau of Export Administration's Export Administration Regulations (EAR), and no such technology can be exported, as elzubeir pointed out, to Sudan. The question at hand, then, is whether or not elzubeir's acquisition of an advanced browser would be considered an "export."

While elzubeir is not outside the physical boundaries of the United States, s/he is a foreign national. The EAR code (Part 734 (2)(ii)) states that "export" includes:

"Any release of technology or source code subject to the EAR to a foreign national. Ths deemed export rule does not apply to person who are protected individuals under the Immigration and Naturalization Act (8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3))..."
Unfortunately, since s/he is on a student visa, elzubeir is not a "protected individual." According to the Immigration and Naturalization Act (8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3)), a protected individual is:

"is an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, is granted the status of an alien lawfully admitted for temporary residence under section 1160(a) or 1255a(a)(1) of this title, is admitted as a refugee under section 1157 of this title, or is granted asylum under section 1158 of this title."
And 1160(a) is for agricultural workers, while 1255(a)(1) is for certain persons who entered the US prior to 1-1-1982.

So, from what I've read, I don't think that there is any way for elzubeir to lawfully acquire a browser with encryption technology.

My Opinion: While I am sure that there are many, many Sudanese students studying in the United States without any evil intent, I believe that the law is intended to ensure that terrorists with true criminal intent do not have the opportunity to lawfully acquire restricted exports by simply becoming a student.

Once again, this only stops the good guys. (none / 0) (#41)
by marimba on Sat Mar 09, 2002 at 05:32:58 PM EST

"I believe that the law is intended to ensure that terrorists with true criminal intent do not have the opportunity to lawfully acquire restricted exports by simply becoming a student." Anyone can lie on those forms, and people with 'true criminal intent' do so regularly, so it doesn't 'ensure' anything at all. My opinion: strong encryption should be freely available to anyone in the world legally. Punish the uses, not the tools.

[ Parent ]
Download Netscape, Get Deported (none / 0) (#40)
by opendna on Thu Mar 07, 2002 at 02:12:22 PM EST

Something many Citizens don't think about is that immigrants (especially under Ashcroft) can be deported for the commission of virtually any crime.
If our dear friend got caught with 128-bit version of Netscape, a violation of encryption export laws, they could be easily deported with no trial or warning.

Consider the following:
How American Dream faded in downtown Mogadishu. By Janine di Giovanni. Times Online.
"They kept asking if we knew people who killed people in Somalia. I kept telling them that I left Somalia in 1978! I don't know anybody." -- deported Somali-American.
IT WAS the stuff American dreams are made on. A few weeks ago, Yussuf Hussein, a Somali who came to the United States in his teens, was living in Boston with his wife and two children, earning $70,000 (43,000) working for a computer software company.
Now, he and more than 30 other American-Somali men are holed up in a squalid hotel costing $2 per night in downtown south Mogadishu, without either money or passport, determined to return home.
In late January, officers of the Immigration Naturalisation Service arrived unannounced at the offices of Intel Corp and arrested Mr Hussein. They refused to tell him what he had been charged with, taking him instead to a cell without access to a lawyer or a telephone. He has not been able to contact his family since.

Exports, Students, Secret handshakes........ (none / 0) (#42)
by stpna5 on Wed Mar 20, 2002 at 05:08:19 AM EST

First let me hereby apologize for the colossal dumbness of many of my fellow Americans. They don't realize how very quickly their precious freedoms are being downsized by the administration of a man whom Col.David Hackworth calls "Bush the lesser." And they are largely unaware of how in other countries there are horrible things done to people and places each day by big oil buddies of the Bush dynasty, but American mass media carries lots of lame sports programming and ill-conceived infotainment operas in lieu of news now. I have a friend from Sudan and although he arrived here long before the current administration came to power, he has made me cognizant of how much more conversant most Sudanese people are about what happens when fundamentalists take over a nation than most Americans are. (He sports a bullet in his skull from the long war there.) As for the encryption legislation --- it is yet one more result of the continued elimination of democratic representation in America's legislative bodies. On every front in the politics/showbiz shell game here where the offices of former public servants have become largely mouthpieces for the sycophants of a sort of Oligarchy-Speak where slush funds are considered protected speech forms. These sorts of laws are draconian at best and have been used in many places against many people to bad result. Although the resultant proscribing of software and some otherlaws passed by legions of treacherous, half-somnambulant clowns posing as congressmen and senators seems esoteric while they pushed through this legislation in many cases they have not even read these bills. Most of them are lawyers.This is not an opinion or an exaggeration. So there is certainly no deliberation by a thoughtful body representing a republic. Viz NAFTA, the DMCA and the recent Patriot Act. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks are being used as a pretext for fascist retrenchment in the American government at every level. At least Americans are supposed to have once lived under a Constitution, its various amendments and the Bill of Rights. No longer though. These have nearly been swept away by powergrabs of the most vicious kind. The actual effects of such boneheaded paternalism have not only enabled worsened "security" --the Hansen case and the Ames and Walker cases, but have destroyed the lives of educated people i.e., Wen Ho Lee --- before all charges were dropped. Americans can expect a bumper crop of new death penalty crimes to be invented. Coming from a senator near you. Homeland security has a nice, Nazi ring to it but is so secret that the particulars of $38 billion budgeted for it are not to be told to Congress or the public.The McCarthy era will look like a Sunday ice cream social by the time J. Edgar Aschroft and his minions finish their holy culture war. And they are all lawyers. Again my apologies and best wishes. You might also recall that the hegemony of lazy college faculty members is also at the root of your problem here, so you might seek relief at the departmental level of your school. Again my apologies, and best wishes.

US Encryption Export Laws and Foreign Students | 42 comments (40 topical, 2 editorial, 0 hidden)
Display: Sort:


All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective companies. The Rest 2000 - Present Kuro5hin.org Inc.
See our legalese page for copyright policies. Please also read our Privacy Policy.
Kuro5hin.org is powered by Free Software, including Apache, Perl, and Linux, The Scoop Engine that runs this site is freely available, under the terms of the GPL.
Need some help? Email help@kuro5hin.org.
My heart's the long stairs.

Powered by Scoop create account | help/FAQ | mission | links | search | IRC | YOU choose the stories!