AF093-224 (AirForce): Non-Lethal Avian Active Denial System Using Directed Energy
Repurpose directed energy active denial systems originally designed for human crowd control to keep birds away from active runways. Since one cannot always rely on having the Hudson River available as an emergency landing site, this may eventually see use at civilian airports.
AF093-002 (AirForce): Ground Mobility and Landing Gear for a Bird-Sized Perching Micro Air Vehicle
There seems to be an ongoing program at AFRL to develop a bird-mimicking vehicle that perches on power lines to recharge. Given the success of AeroVironment's Nano Air Vehicle project, this is not nearly as far-fetched as it first seems. Currently, the constraints of designing such small air vehicles are such that on-board power sources provide extremely limited flight time, so harvesting energy from the environment makes sense. The fact that birds tend to naturally congregate on power lines is an intriguing coincidence.
N093-167 (Navy): Automated Marine Mammal Mitigation Sensor for Multi-Static Active ASW
On a first read, it would seem that this work is in response to the trouble that the Navy has had with lawsuits from environmentalists over the harmful effects that active sonar have on marine mammals. However, it is also well-known that the Navy operates a program involved in training dolphins to perform various military tasks, such as patrolling the waters of naval bases for divers. While the first explanation may seem more plausible, it is curious that the Navy would then include the following addendum:
"The prospective contractor(s) must be U.S. Owned and Operated with no Foreign Influence as defined by DOD 5220.22-M, National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual, unless acceptable mitigating procedures can and have been be implemented and approved by the Defense Security Service (DSS). The selected contractor and/or subcontractor must be able to acquire and maintain a secret level facility and Personnel Security Clearances, in order to perform on advanced phases of this contract as set forth by DSS and NAVAIR in order to gain access to classified information pertaining to the national defense of the United States and its allies; this will be an inherent requirement. The selected company will be required to safeguard classified material In Accordance With DoD 5220.22-M during the advance phases of this contract."
AF093-109 (AirForce): Cost Reducing Processing Development of High Performance Transparent Armor
I'm not sure how much better aluminum oxynitride is over your standard bullet-proof glass, but it's probably not the same thing given that even the military considers it expensive.
N093-223 (Navy): Low Cost Orbital Debris Removal System
Far from being research on an anti-satellite weapon (the US military already has plenty of those), this seems more concerned with cleaning up the aftermath of an anti-satellite strike. Blowing up a satellite will naturally leave a cloud of debris circling the Earth at ~18,000 miles per hour. Such debris pose a hazard to everything else in orbit, as a collision at such velocities would almost certainly be lethal to any manned vehicle and could degrade or destroy the capabilities of unmanned satellites. Since space junk is an old problem that has been getting increasingly worse in the past few years, it's nice to see the Navy getting behind an effort to clean up some of the garbage.
I would share the DARPA topics here as well, but frankly they are mostly targeted at computer science weenies and are thus of little interest to me. You may, however, browse them at your leisure.